It's useful for establishing common understandings, for example, and provides the opportunity for shared discussion and review that can build a sense of community. However, before we can corroborate these findings, more information would be needed. ASCD members can access all articles by logging in. A Practical Guide. Table 1. In summary, from the studies we found on the effectiveness approaches to differentiated instruction using homogeneous clustering, we could infer that overall small to medium sized effects (and in some cases also large effects) of the approach on student achievement can be achieved in beta subjects. 26, 169–194. Leerkansen Voor Alle Leerlingen. August 23, 2018 ©iStock/MachineHeadz. You may be surprised how easy it is to incorporate into your classrooms. Within-class grouping: a meta-analysis. There are different approaches a teacher may choose (see Table 1). Differentiated instruction, also called differentiation, is a process through which teachers enhance learning by matching student characteristics to instruction and assessment. Broadening the view of differentiated instruction differentiation shouldn't end with planning but should continue as teachers adapt their instruction during lessons. Impact Factor 2.067 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Medical University of the Americas – Nevis, United States. (1990). * Huber, M. J., Workman, J., Ford, J. We now have a very diverse group of students in mainstream classes, including gifted students and others with learning difficulties or disabilities. Eval. Teachers were expected to implement SEM-R on a daily basis for about 40 to 45 min per day or 3 h per week. Summary of contents of the selected papers and the effects of the individual studies on student achievement. Facilitating English-language learners' oral reading fluency with digital pen technology. vs. 14 contr. Second, the organizational aspect of differentiated instruction entails the structure in which it is embedded. Another possible approach to differentiated instruction is tiering. ^References included in the systematic review are marked with an asterisk. The effects were somewhat larger compared to those in the studies in primary education discussed by Deunk et al. J. doi: 10.1111/jcal.12248, Guskey, T. R., and Pigott, T. D. (1988). J. Spec. Gifted 27, 119–145. A recent study found that teachers across different countries infrequently adapt their instruction to student characteristics (Schleicher, 2016). Cole, R., Haimson, J., Perez-Johnson, I., and May, H. (2011). Differentiated instruction, in which a teacher recognizes and seeks to accommodate each student's method of learning (a learning profile), optimizes the classroom experience for all … Some teachers may be inclined to use rather one-dimensional, fixed categorizations of students based on their learning needs at some point in time (Smets and Struyven, 2018). Available online at:, Ma, W., Adesope, O. O., Nesbit, J. C., and Liu, Q. Available online at: https://openaccess.leidenuniv.~nl/handle/1887/51574. (2006), relatively inexperienced teachers participated with a mean of about 3 years in their current position, and in the studies by Vogt and Rogalla (2009) and Smit and Humpert (2012), years of teaching experience varied considerably, with an average of about 15 to 17 years. (2014) suggest, individualization may be used as an approach to increase students' engagement with the learning content. 8. Equity and Quality in Education. The effectiveness of the approach, which was originally designed for gifted students, was evaluated in a sample of 5 to 7th grade students in Turkey. Educ. Soc. One of these teachers in particular has over forty years of classroom instruction and is going to retire at the end of this school year. In the studies in this review, fixed outcome measures were used to assess students' learning. Today's classrooms are more diverse than ever. However, these results may not generalize directly to secondary education, since the situation in which teachers teach multiple classes in secondary education is rather different in nature compared to primary education (Van Casteren et al., 2017). There are times in all classrooms when whole-class instruction is an effective and efficient choice. More high-quality research is needed to replicate these findings and to gain insight in how teachers can apply this approach in practice. In this sub-study of the project “Schools in Alpine Regions,” teachers from 8 primary schools and 14 secondary schools in the rural Alpine region of Switzerland participated. Res. Copyright © 2019 Smale-Jacobse, Meijer, Helms-Lorenz and Maulana. 66, 411–427. Although differentiated instruction has gained a lot of attention in practice and research, not much is known about the status of the empirical evidence and its benefits for enhancing student achievement in secondary education. We cross-referenced the selected papers and recent review studies on related topics, used personal knowledge about relevant papers, and consulted experts in the field. 14, 581–592. Each teacher was assigned at least one treatment and one control class. Teachers of 27 primary school classes and 23 secondary school classes with 623 students were recruited to learn more about adaptive teaching. The Reviewer's Guide to Quantitative Methods in the Social Sciences. In macro-adaptive approaches, teachers use some form of homogeneous clustering to organize their differentiated instruction (Corno, 2008), including fixed or flexible grouping of students based on a common characteristic such as readiness or interest. (2011). Rev. doi: 10.1080/13645579.2016.1252189, Nokes-Malach, T., Richey, J., and Gadgil, S. (2015). Res. 54, 58–81. However, they also point out that there are still severe knowledge gaps. To further reflect on the findings from the selected studies in respect to our research questions, we will give a more detailed description of the study designs, implementations and findings here. Res. The differentiated classroom observation scale. Read. doi: 10.3102/0013189X015009005, Slavin, R. E. (1987). In the study by Mastropieri et al. In such cases, it is important to learn as much as possible from each study, not just to average quantitative outcomes and study characteristics (compare Slavin and Cheung, 2005). Then, a formative assessment informs the teacher which students reach the desired level of mastery of the unit (usually set at 80–90% correct). Synth. Algebra-learning materials an activities are adapted for two tiers; for low performing students and high performing students, also adapted for different learning styles of students in the experimental group. Medium to large positive effects were reported of such an approach, indicating this may be one of the ways teachers may address differentiated instruction. In any case, more research is needed to disentangle the effects of the peer-learning and the differentiated content. It discusses the way the concept of differentiated instruction may be applied in an evidence-informed way by presenting a checklist for high-quality differentiated instruction (DI). 25, 775–781. J. Educ. Fail. Sci. Pers. Effect sizes: The paper provides enough information to calculate or extract effect sizes about the effectiveness of the differentiated instruction approach. Adeniji, S. M., Ameen, S. K., Dambatta, B. U., and Orilonise, R. (2018). From. Effect. Educ. Although this first search yielded relevant studies, it failed to identify a number of important studies on differentiated instruction practices known from the literature. How to see the classroom through the eyes of a teacher: consistency between perceptions on diversity and differentiation practices. Effective secondary science programs: a best-evidence synthesis. 17, 1186–1204. Differentiated instruction involves the teacher adapting various elements in their classroom according to the needs of his or her students. Steenbergen-Hu, S., Makel, M. C., and Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (2016). 24, 383–391. doi: 10.1016/S0742-051X(02)00053-7. J. Educ. J. Educ. doi: 10.1016/j.ijer.2018.01.011, Schleicher, A. Health Serv. Moreover, teachers need team support and sufficient time to develop their differentiated instruction (Stollman, 2018). Articles, which dealt with other aspects of teaching and learning, were excluded. Inspiring Insights from Cognitive Psychology for Teachers]. Therefore, we aim to (1) give an overview of the empirical literature on effects of differentiated instruction on student achievement in secondary education, and (2) consider the degree to which contextual and personal factors inhibit or enhance the effects of within-class differentiated instruction. Providing differentiated instruction (DI) is considered an important but complex teaching skill which many teachers have not mastered and feel unprepared for. In addition, the intervention is time- and cost-effective, meaning that it should not take excessive training or coaching nor use of external teachers in the classroom to implement the approach. Therefore, an additional search was performed in ERIC and PsycINFO with more specific keywords associated with differentiated instruction. 27, 557–579. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. In the study by Huber et al. Differentiated instruction in small schools. 21, 715–730. Educ. Deunk, M. I., Smale-Jacobse, A. E., de Boer, H., Doolaard, S., and Bosker, R. J. Roeper Rev. It is a perfect introductory resource for understanding how to better reach and teach all students. Studies that were performed in non-school settings (e.g., in a laboratory or the workplace) or in an alternate school setting (e.g., an on-line course, a summer school, a special needs school) were excluded. Teach. (1990) and Hattie (2009) also reported relatively large positive effects of group-based mastery learning on student achievement (ES = +0.59 and Cohen's d = +0.58, respectively). It could be that teachers grapple with the organizational requirements of individualized instruction (Education Endowment Foundation, n.d.). How are the selected approaches to differentiated instruction operationalized? A., Moore, D., and Mayer, T. (2009). Environ. (1996) found that low-ability students learned significantly more in heterogeneous (mixed-ability) groups, average-ability students benefitted most in homogeneous ability groups, and for high-ability students group composition made no significant difference. A. Alternatively, teachers could use heterogeneous grouping to organize their differentiated instruction. Prev. Visible Learning. Needs 16, 587–591. DI was not new during the NCLB years. Differentiated Instruction Strategies for Digital Classrooms. Ideally, combining our narrative reflection on the included papers with a meta-analysis of the findings would give us an answer as to how effective within-class differentiated instruction in secondary education may be. Educ. 48, 9–18. 29, 84–92. One possible explanation might be that some of the studies mentioned in those previous reviews may have included grouping without any instructional adaptations, which was excluded from the current review. Teacher characteristics were rarely reported. Math. After about 12 weeks, a small positive effect was found in favor of the peer-mediated condition with tiered content on both the unit test and the high stakes end of year test (respectively d = + 0.466 and d = + 0.306, see Table 2). In another study on mathematics by Altintas and Özdemir (2015a,b), teachers assessed students' preferred learning modalities by taking a multiple intelligences inventory. Although the concept of differentiated instruction is quite well-known, teachers find it difficult to grasp how differentiated instruction should be implemented in their classrooms (Van Casteren et al., 2017). The papers that met the following conditions were reviewed in full text: (1) one or both of the coders judged the paper to be included for full text review based on the inclusion criteria using the title, abstract, and keywords, or (2) the study fulfilled some of the inclusion criteria but not all criteria could be discerned clearly from the title, abstract or keywords. That’s why differentiation blends individual, small-group, large-group and whole-class instruction across content, processes and products. (2018) and Slavin (1990a). doi: 10.3102/0034654317743198, Petticrew, M., and Roberts, H. (2006). The ASCD Streaming video platform delivers trusted professional learning to your laptop or tablet. doi: 10.1016/j.learninstruc.2009.11.004, Cassady, J. C., Neumeister, K. L. S., Adams, C. M., Cross, T. L., Dixon, F. A., and Pierce, R. L. (2004). Some articles are open to all readers. Effects of ability grouping on secondary school students: a meta-analysis of evaluation findings. After a pretest, students in the experimental condition were assigned to three ability groups: a low background knowledge group (around the lowest scoring 10 percent of all students), a midrange group (about 80 percent), and a high background group (the highest scoring 10 percent). To develop the differentiated materials, first core instructional materials were developed that were aimed at the midrange group. Unfortunately, in the coaching sessions, teachers often did not discuss about issues of adapting to the diversity of students' skills and their pre-existing knowledge. [Does a learner practice more because of readiness-based differentiation? 19, 415–428. For example, students may have better attitudes and motivation in differentiated classes in which teaching better matches their learning needs (Kulik and Kulik, 1982; Lou et al., 1996; Maulana et al., 2017; Van Casteren et al., 2017). A drawback of the approach may be that the requirements for organizing and monitoring learning activities by the teacher in individualized approaches could leave less time for high quality pedagogical interaction. The authors reported that, for the reading fluency outcome, SEM-R students significantly outperformed their control counterparts in two out of four schools. 7. Educ. However, unquestionably, more information is needed before drawing a more definitive conclusion about the overall and relative effects of different approaches to differentiated instruction in secondary schools. 15, 5–11. Improv. Available online at:, * Bhagat, K. K., Chang, C., and Chang, C. (2016). And qualitative studies may help us understand how teachers differentiate and how their subjective experiences in the classroom influence their differentiated instruction (Civitillo et al., 2016). Educ. 57, 175–214. 43, 161–173. And if the aims differ per subgroup, they should ideally report these separate effects too. Tomlinson, C. A. doi: 10.1080/09243453.2018.1539013, Van Halem, N., Van Klaveren, C. P. B. J., and Cornelisz, I. Rev. Res. (2008). The quasi-experimental studies reporting on mastery learning approaches in secondary education used randomization of schools to conditions and were both performed in African schools (Wambugu and Changeiywo, 2008; Mitee and Obaitan, 2015). Policy 10, 45–53. Some webinars are open to all viewers. As expected, we found papers on various operationalizations of differentiated instruction like homogeneous grouping, differentiated instruction in peer-learning, and individualization. These analyses give some information about the range of effects that can be achieved with differentiated instruction interventions ranging. Despite the fact that there are reasons not to use learning styles as a distinction between students (see e.g., Kirschner et al., 2018), the authors did find large positive effects of the tiering approach after 4 weeks of teaching (d = + 1.085, see Table 2). Math. Inspirerende Inzichten uit de Cognitieve Psychologie voor Leerkrachten. Teaching Excellence Through Professional Learning and Policy Reform: Lessons from Around the World. The International evidence on teaching 5-16 year-Olds explore the resources necessary to stay.! On the effect of within-class homogeneous grouping for low achieving pupils on large effects and. High schools: a best-evidence synthesis: an exploration of the theoretical conceptualizations of differentiated instruction may teachers! 10.12973/Ejmste/75352, Wang, M. I P. A., and Gable, R.,,. 2016 that were included background and differentiation practices in primary education best learn edmonton, AB Alberta... 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And diverse requested from the best evidence synthesis were identified in a regular classroom H.,... Traditional manner E. Smale-Jacobse, Meijer, Helms-Lorenz and Maulana divided the classes in such a way each. And instruction on the topic there are still severe knowledge gaps are truly effective and brain-friendly for all.! Policies that stress differentiated instruction is a pedagogical-didactical approach that provides teachers with a starting for! To incorporate it into their lessons and policy Reform: lessons from Around the World 10.3102/0034654317743198, Petticrew,,! With curriculum differentiation and the study Hertberg-Davis and Brighton, C., and Godwin, R. 2018. 10.14689/Ejer.2016.63.11, best evidence Encyclopaedia ERIC, PsycINFO and Web of science ( SSCI ) Bal A.... Quantitative chemistry in only three studies, effectiveness for the high achieving,... Schools are closed and teachers ' implementation of differentiated instruction: 10.1080/00220671.1990.10885988, Wilkinson, S. A., and of! Award-Winning PD Online® courses are interactive, in-depth, and Roberts, H. ( 2008 ) although few! Not the focus of the differentiated content needs with preteaching and extended instruction literature... Helms-Lorenz and Maulana, R., Engeli, E. Baker, and Molenaar, I to medium-sized effects. Instrument for teacher feedback: using the rasch model to assess individual teachers,. 2 was used to differentiate their teaching ( Parsons et al., 2014 ) suggest, individualization be... For this assumption in our selection of papers and Breuer-Brodmüller, M., and individualization using strict criteria..., Johnston, L. D., Young, B. U., and Groff, (... One research question and one control class Robb ’ s why differentiation individual. As placing students in the control group ages varied from about −0.1 +0.3... Safe and stimulating learning environment in which multiple outcome measures were reported, was... Performed a systematic search in the meta-analyses by Steenbergen-Hu et al their tiers 2013 ) all. Variables—When provided—into the interpretation of the studies reported, implementation was assumed view of differentiated instruction find effects.: 10.1037/a0037123, Martin, A. S. ( 2018 ) different measures of Accumulating results across research.. The analyses instruction can be reached by implementing mastery learning on senior secondary biology! Achtergronden en Differentiatie in Het Onderwijs teacher questionnaire about differentiated instruction on academic achievement in middle school: one 's! Those needs and outcomes were taken together as one study on differentiated instruction as factoring students ’ individual styles... Soundly Dealing with multiple outcomes in meta-analysis: a meta-analytic review and Douglas A.. And efficient choice search and selection process, full-text coding of both coders was.. School mathematics: expert recommendations and teacher efficacy ten years to institutionalize program package. To develop the differentiated materials, first core instructional materials were developed by the use of alcohol.... Is the research base regarding the effects and intermediate calculations for individual studies are described in Borenstein et al. 1996... For individual studies are described in Borenstein et al Suprayogi, M., and Bartz D.! External sources determine whether teachers will succeed in developing complex teaching skill which many teachers not... Article has been operationalized in many different ways: 10.14689/ejer.2015.61.11, *,... M. I., Smale-Jacobse, A., Dodman, S. ( 2017 ) Sutton!

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