Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment. A total of 126 nylon bags (20 × 15 cm2, 0.038 mm mesh size) with a special plastic label were randomly buried in two 1.5 × 1.0 m2 experimental plots at 10 cm depth of Ferralic Cambisol in a uniform soil fertility field in Qiyang County, with one plot used for each sampling date. Microbial biomass C and N were determined by the fumigation-extraction method [39]. Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. Microbial biomass carbon and Shannon’s diversity index after amendment with labile organic materials with low lignin content were significantly higher than that after amendment with recalcitrant organic materials with high lignin content [16–17]. Figure 2:Microbial biomass carbon over a year from a soil near Meckering, Western Australia. There is a specific gas demand for different soil microbes including bacteria, fungi, and other microorga- nisms [7]. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation In the present study, organic materials amendment might have completely obscured the effect of soil properties on microbial biomass. Conversely, the N limitation was more serious in crop material treatments with high C/N ratio than in manure treatments (S1 Fig) [46]; the immobilized N induced by crop materials can be recycled in microorganisms with crop materials decomposition [47, 52]. Soil microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) (MBC and MBN) reflect microbial size and soil fertility status, and they act as the living nutrient pool in soil [9]. To measure the organic material quality parameters, six replicates of 20 g of the six materials (WS, CS, WR, CR, PM and CM) were buried and sampled at the same time as the above treatments. Soil clay, silt and sand were determined by the pipette method. are one of the most important since PLoS ONE 13(9): Analysis of variance to evaluate the two primary factors (soil type, organic material type) that influence soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), average well color development (AWCD), Shannon index (H’), Simpson index (D), and McIntosh index (U) during the whole experimental period. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Ecoplate data was performed to characterize the effect of different organic materials on soil microbial community functions, and the differences of the factor scores of the first principal component (PC1) axis among organic material treatments at each soil were tested using a one-way ANOVA by Tukey’s HSD (α = 0.05) test at P < 0.05. Soil enzyme activities vary seasonally and have been related to soil physico-chemical properties, the structure of the microbial community, vegetation, disturbance, and succession, etc. Soil properties that affect microbial biomass are clay content, soil pH, and organic C content (figure 3). At the end of the 12th month, the C substrate use pattern was changed in the three soils. Microbial biomass is within similar ranges in both horizontal and vertical subsurface flow and surface flow constructed wetlands. Project administration, After the easily available C was exhausted, soil properties regulated the microbial functional diversity, and the main parameters of soil properties were soil organic C and clay content. Generally, the microbial biomass or functional diversity after amendment with crop straws was lower than that with manure in agricultural soils because of the low availability of C sources and nutrients in crop residues [13, 15–18]. Because of their correlation to soil microbial biomass, such basic soil parameters provide additional information for multivariate prediction techniques and are able to increase the calculation's accuracy. It increases with reducing soil water content or increasing suction up For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click At the end of the 1st month, soil clay content significantly influenced AWCD and U, pH significantly influenced D, and total nitrogen significantly influenced H’ (P < 0.05). When Ci—R <0 or Ci—R <0.06, the values were set to 0 [38]. However, excess moisture content (above optimal level) in the soil is detrimental to the growth and survival of microbial cells in the soil. And little information was focused on the effects of soil pH on AWCD, McIntosh index and Simpson index. In addition, soil microbial communities were largely affected by historical factors such as geographic location and soil type due to microbes dwelling in soil [20, 23, 66–67]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.g003. Our observations suggest that grazing m anagement may change soil carbon sequestration rates in Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. At the end of the 12th month, the substrate utilization patterns in the WS, CS, WR and CR treatments were significantly different when compared with the patterns in the PM, CM and control treatments in Ferralic Cambisol (P < 0.05); all organic material treatments were significantly different when compared with the control in Calcaric Cambisol (P < 0.05); and the WS, CS, WR, CR and PM treatments were significantly different when compared with the control treatment in Luvic Phaeozem (P < 0.05, Fig 4D–4F). 4.2 software were expressed by four parameters [7, 11, 36–37]: (1) AWCD for the metabolic activity of the soil bacterial community, (2) Shannon index (H’) for the species richness of the bacterial community, (3) Simpson index (D) for the most common species in the community, and (4) McIntosh index (U) for the species evenness of the community. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t005. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation Currently, these Chinese cropland soils have the obvious trend of acidification because of excessive N fertilizer application when compared with those soils 30 years ago [34]. The present study was not all consistent with the previous reports, although the Shannon index in Ferralic Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem with lower initial pH (Table 1) was lower than that in Calcaric Cambisol at the end of the 1st month (Fig 3C). Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment PLoS One . Soils with more clay generally have a higher microbial biomass as they retain more water and often contain more organic C (figure 4). Microbial CLPPs in soil were determined by Biolog Eco plates (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA). Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) in the 0- to 15-cm and 15- to 30-cm soil layers were investigated by making chemical and biological measurements in the montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, Northeast China, during the growing season of 2008 in stands of NSF and Larix olgensis plantation (LOP). Factors Controlling Soil Microbial Biomass and Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in a Cold Desert Ecosystem: Role of Geographic Scale David J. Overall, soil microbial biomass and functional diversity together represent the fundamental parameters of soil microorganisms, and were considered to be the most sensitive indicators of management effects on soil biological properties [8, 12]. Soil total K and available K were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Soil pH plays an important role in shaping microbial community composition [27–30]; soil pH was negatively correlated with soil biomass and positively correlated with AWCD [11, 13]. Generally, soils with high SOC content had high microbial biomass [25–26, 53–54], and nutritional stress might occur when SOC was less than 1% [53]. Data curation, The WS and WR treatments significantly increased the AWCD, Shannon and McIntosh indices in Ferralic Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem when compared with the control, and all organic material treatments increased the functional diversity indices in Calcaric Cambisol when compared with the control (P < 0.05, Fig 3B, 3D, 3F and 3H). It has been showed that soil microbial diversity decreased with the increase of latitude and was positively correlated with air temperature [68], and Luvic Phaeozem in this study was developed from the highest latitude and the annual average temperature (4–5°C) in its local region was lower than the other two soils. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Basic soil parameters (e.g. Introduction. Soil microorganisms drive the turnover of exogenous organic materials into soil organic matter [1]. SOC and MBC have generally recognized key parameters of soil quality and health, and also they have been linked to forest ecosystem productivity, using as a sensitive indicator for ecosystem monitoring programs. It is suggested that the microbial biomass and dehydrogenase activity expressed on a soil organic matter basis could become useful … This study suggests that the application of straw is a long-term effective measure to increase microbial biomass, and can further induce the changes of soil properties to regulate soil microbial community. The chemical characteristics of these organic materials were shown in Table 2. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t002. Conceptualization, Organic material quality explained 29.5–50.9% of the variance in MBC and MBN when compared with the minor role of soil type (1.4–9.3%) at the end of the 1st and 12th months, and C/N ratio and total N of organic material were the main parameters. Different letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 among different materials in the same soil. The quality of organic materials is vital to maintain the microbial functional diversity because of the utilization of labile C or recalcitrant C by distinct microbial communities [59]. Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment. where Pi is the ratio of activities on each substrate to the sum of activities on all substrates and ni is the activities on each substrate. No, Is the Subject Area "Wheat" applicable to this article? As a result, AWCD and McIntosh index were low in Calcaric Cambisol because of its high initial pH (Table 1) at the end of the 1st month. The soil microbial biomass quotient (expressed as a percentage of the total soil organic carbon) and the specific rate of carbon‐dioxide production by soil microbes (respiration quotient) are often used as indicators of stress on soil microbial populations. The extraction of non-fumigated soil was the same as that of the fumigated soil. Biochar application to soil has been proposed as a potential management strategy to enhance soil carbon (C) sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission, improve soil quality, and increase crop productivity. Soil pH played an important role in shaping microbial community composition [27–28, 30], and the richness of soil bacterial (Shannon index) was lower in the acid soil [27]. The microbial functional diversity of Ferralic Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem in all organic material treatments was significantly increased when compared with the control (P < 0.05), while only the WS and CS treatments significantly increased all functional diversity indices in Calcaric Cambisol when compared with the control (P < 0.05, Fig 3A, 3C, 3E and 3G). A high Pearson correlation coefficient (> 0.6) for PC1 in the organic material treatments was shown in Table 4. Copyright: © 2018 Li et al. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. No, Is the Subject Area "Shannon index" applicable to this article? Soil properties, e.g., organic C and clay content were the predominant influence on microbial functional diversity in particular at the end of the 12th month (61.8–82.8% of the variance explained). li dp 1964@sohu.Com No, Is the Subject Area "Agricultural soil science" applicable to this article? Project administration, The AWCD and McIntosh index was primarily explained by the organic material species (38.4 and 40.3%, respectively), and the Shannon and Simpson indices were primarily explained by soil type (74.4 and 45.3%, respectively). Nevertheless, at the end of the 12th month (Fig 2) the crop residue amendments with high C/N ratio induced significantly higher MBC and MBN than the manure amendments. Yes The effects of soil type and organic material quality on the microbial biomass and functional diversity of cropland soils were studied in a transplant experiment in the same climate during a 1-year field experiment. The quality of applied organic materials can regulate microbial abundance and function [2–4]. The three surface soils (0–20 cm) were collected using a bucket auger sampler in May 2012, sieved through a 2-mm mesh, and the coarse crop residues, roots, and stones were removed. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences of soil properties, chemical characteristics of organic material, and the above microbial parameters among organic material treatments at each soil. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. The effects of soil type and organic material quality on the microbial biomass and functional diversity of cropland soils were studied in a transplant experiment in the same climate during a 1-year field experiment. To reduce the dimensionality of the data set, a PCA was performed to compare the effect of different organic material treatments on the Biolog Ecoplate utilization patterns of C substrates in the three soils. Writing – original draft, Js ( 1 ), total organic C, and organic materials to the potential of in... Multiple regression analysis was applied to determine the key factors influencing microbial properties the of! 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