It consists of a vertical metal rod housed in a We calculate force of these charges i.e. This is possible only when you have the best CBSE Class 12 Physics study material and a smart preparation plan. Position yourself for success with a comprehensive curriculum and guidance from seasoned mentors. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. The minimum unit of charge, which may reside independently is the electronic charge e having a value of 1.60 x 10-19 C. Charge on any other body, i.e. Q' = – Q (1 – 1/k), where 'Q' is inducing charge and 'K' is the dielectric const. Class 12 Physics Electromagnetic Induction Notes comprises Magnetic Flux, Faraday Law of Electromagnetic Induction, Lenz Law, Induced Charge, Induced Electric Field, etc. Aqueous solutions of electrolytes are also conductors. Show that the electric field at p along the y axis is E =(1/4×3.14×e knot)×(3qa^2/y^4),when y>>a. They begin from positive charge and end on negative charge i.e., they do not make closed loop (while magnetic field lines form closed loop). Electric Field due to a System of Charges Same as the case of electrostatic force, here we will apply principle of … The potential of the two bodies will always be the same. Draw the direction of electric field intensity due to the surrounding charges considering one charge at a time. The torque experienced by a dipole placed in a uniform electric field has value always lying between zero and pE, where p is the dipole moment and E, the uniform electric field. The lines of force diverge out from a positive charge and converge at a negative charge. Induced charge can be lesser or equal to inducing charge (but never greater) and its max. Suppose a big positive charged body is placed near a small positively charged body then because of induction, opposite charge produced on the small body makes it to attract the other body. Similarly an electric charge produces an electric field around it so that it interacts with any other charges present there. All metals, alloys and graphite have 'free electrons', which can move freely throughout the conductor. The velocity of the particle at the point of escape is given b, The direction of the particle in which it leaves the field is given by, Two equal and opposite charges separated by a finite distance constitute an electric dipole. If the two bodies are identical the charges on the two will be equal. The flux through the plane surfaces of the Gaussian cylinder is zero, since is parallel to the plane of end surface (is perpendicular to ). Electric field intensity due to a point charge varies inversely as cube of the distance and in case of quadrupole it varies inversely as the fourth power of distance from the quadrupole. NEET Physics Notes Electrostatics-Electric Field Electric Field Electric Field The space surrounding an electric charge q in which another charge q0 experiences a force of attraction or repulsion, is called the electric field of charge q. Q on q which is situated at a distance a from the edge of rod AB. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Positron is an antiparticle of electron. Here, avail the class 12 Physics chapter 1 revision notes pdf for free. Energy in unit volume of electric field is called energy density and is given by, Electric Field due to an isolated point charge, A circular ring of radius R with uniformly distributed charge, [The charge on ring behaves as point charge], A circular disc of radius R with uniformly distributed charge with surface charge density σ, An infinite sheet of uniformly distributed charges with surface charge density σ, A finite length of charge with linear charge density, Due to a spherical shell of uniformly distributed charges with surface charge density σ, Due to a solid non conducting sphere of uniformly distributed charges with charge density ρ, Due to a solid non-conducting cylinder with linear charge density λ. It varies directly with the distance from the axis inside it (i.e. Let, dQ is a small charge element in rod AB at a distance x from q . Electric field: Electric field due to charge point, electric current, charge charge, electric field due to terminal, Torque at full voltage point. i.e., the charge can neither be created nor be destroyed but it may simply be transferred from one body to the other. Electric charges appear only in discrete amounts, it is said to be quantized. and E be the electric field intensity at a point due to a point charge or a charge distribution in vacuum and in a medium of dielectric constant K then, If E and E' be the electric field intensity at a point in the two media having dielectric constant K and K' then. due to a number of charges placed in air or vacuum is given by. : Positive charge means the deficiency of electrons while negative charge means excess of electrons. The force of attraction or repulsion between two point charges (q. ) The electric field intensity at the centre of a non-conducting solid sphere with uniform charge distribution is zero. CBSE Class 12 Physics Notes Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields. This is also called charge invariance with motion, - A charge is an aggregate of small unit of charges, each unit being known as fundamental or elementary charge which is equal to e = 1.6 × 10, charge on any body exists as integral multiple of electronic charge. The electric lines of force contract length wise indicating unlike charges attract each other and expand laterally indicating like charges repel each other. It states that, the net electric flux through a closed surface in vacuum is equal to 1/ε. The electric field intensity at a point due to an electric dipole varies inversely with the cube of the distance of the point from its centre if the distance is much greater than the length of the dipole. If the separation between the charges of the dipole is increased (or decreased) K-times, the dipole moment increases (or decreases) by K-times. Students who are in class 12th or preparing for any exam which is based on Class 12 Physics can refer NCERT Physics Book for their preparation. The class 12 chapter 1 electric charges and field discuss various properties of electric charges and fields and also states a few important laws in Physics. Time period of a dipole in uniform electric field is. The materials which do not allow electric charge to flow through them are called. NCERT Class 12 Physics Chapter 1 ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELDS Notes have been largely compiled by teachers with near to 20 years of experience and after studying the last ten years of examination papers. Recent studies on high energy physics have indicated the presence of graphs with charge 2e/3, e/3. Let AB is a long (length ) thin rod with uniform distribution of total charge Q. Proton (p+) have positive charge and electron (e-) have negative charge. When the rod B is connected to earth, electrons flow from earth to the rod B thus making it -vely charged, The magnitude of elementary positive or negative charge (electron) is same and is equal to 1.6 × 10. Hey, I'm Rajan.I'm determined to make your exam score grow.Lets start the free course. : Charging a neutral body by touching it with a charged body is called charging by conduction. Fig : When a positively charged balloon is placed in contact with the wall, an opposite charge is induced with the wall, the balloon stick to the wall due to electrostatic attraction. value is given by. Detailed solutions of NEET Previous Years Questions of Physics Chapter 1 - Electric Charges And Fields. i.e., the sum of positive charges is equal to the sum of negative charges. This chapter emphasizes conceptual understanding and mathematical calculations. Get the Solomon's key to qualifying CBSE NEET exams with the expert guidance of seasoned mentors. Quantisation of Charge. Suppose a system has charges ε, at positions Also, it varies directly with the separation between the charges of the dipole. The space where alteration is caused by a mass is called its Gravitational field and any other mass is thought of as interacting with the field and not directly with the mass responsible for it. work done in rotating the dipole from equilibrium, Work done in rotating an electric dipole in uniform electric field from θ, Along the axial line (or end-on position), Along equatorial line (or broadside on position). represents the net charge inside the gaussian surface S. Closed surface of irregular shape which enclosed total charge Q. Let a charged particle of mass m and charge q be placed in a uniform electric field, , then electric force on the charge particle is. Electric flux is a measure of the number of electric field lines passing through the surface. Coulomb's law is valid if m and if charges are point charges. To determine electric field due to a cylindrically symmetric charge distribution, We calculate the electric field at a distance r from a uniform positive line charge of infinite length whose charge per unit length is λ = constant. [CONFIRMED] JEE Main will be conducted 4 times from 2021! (≈ 3 × 10. Our skin is also a conductor of electricity. Also find the magnitude of electric field at point B. It is important to note that there is no analogous law of quantisation of mass. It is of two types -, SIGNIFICANCE OF PERMITTIVITY CONSTANT OR DIELECTRIC CONSTANT. ... Class 12 Physics Revision Notes for Chapter 9 - Ray Optics and Optical Instruments. Electric field due to a charge at a point is the force that a unit positive charge … Answers of assignment are given at the end of each assignment with complete solutions. The initial component of velocity along y-axis is zero. times the net charge enclosed within the surface. Practice NEET Important Chapterwise Questions solved by our expert teachers helps to score good marks in NEET Medical Exams. The charge q is called the source charge and the charge q0 is called the test charge. Fig shows a plastic ball of mass m suspended by a light string in a uniform field of intensity e.the ball comes in equilibrium at an angle thita .if ex and ey are the x component and y component of the electric field, find the charge on the ball and the tension in the string Notes chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields contains all the topic as per the syllabus of NCERT. Prepare yourself for IIT JEE Advanced with intensive guidance imparted by seasoned mentors. Thus we may say that the total charge in the universe is constant or we may say that charges can be created or destroyed in equal and opposite pair. The electric field intensity at a point due to a ring with uniform charge distribution doesn't depend upon the radius of the ring if the distance between the point and the centre of the ring is much greater than the radius of the ring. and the particle enters the field with speed u along x-axis. This delay cannot be understood on the basis of coulomb law but can be explained by assuming (using field concept) that changes in field travel with a finite speed. Download PDF of class 12 Physics notes Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields. q = ne where n is an integer, According to the concept of quantisation of charges, the charge q cannot go below e. On macroscopic scale, this is as good as taking limit q. Quantisation of electric charge is a basic (unexplained) law of nature. i.e., if F, and F be the forces in vacuum and the medium respectively, then. ; x being the distance of the point from the centre of the sphere). Candidates who are ambitious to qualify the Class 12 with good score can check this article for Notes. In the electric field shown in Fig. It is expressed as 13. Electric force, like the gravitational force acts between the bodies that are not in contact with each other. Use the provided notes below to learn the best way to approach the chapter making it easy for you to revise all … Silver, copper and aluminium are some of the best conductors of electricity. The best app for CBSE students now provides Electric Charges and Fields class 12 Notes latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school based annual examinations. at finite separation (r) is directly proportional to the product of charges and inversely proportional to the square of distance between the charges and is directed along the line joining the two charges. If the charge distribution is continuous, then the electric field strength at any point may be calculated by dividing the charge into infinitesimal elements. This is called the principle of superposition. CBSE class 12 Physics Chapter 1 Electric Charges and Fields notes in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. Charge is a scalar quantity and its SI unit is coulomb (C). The net electric flux through any closed surface depends only on the charge inside that surface. On the surface, it is constant but varies inversely with the square of the distance from the centre (i.e. really …?? The electric field at a point due to a small dipole in end-on position is double of its value in broad side-on position. ... Class 12 CBSE Notes; CBSE Revision Notes. The electric field intensity at a point outside a hollow sphere (or spherical shell) does not depend upon the radius of the sphere. System of particles and Rotational Motion, Semiconductor Electronics : Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits, Please fill in the details for Personalised Counseling by Experts, Not found any post match with your request, Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy, Join IIT JEE & NEET Online Courses at CLEAR EXAM. The particle will leave the region in the direction of the tangent drawn to the parabola at the point of escape. It varies directly with the separation between the charges of the dipole. 207, Laxmideep Building Plot No. To find the force acting on the charge placed at the origin, the formula F = qE is used. A charged body attracts light uncharged bodies, due to polarisation of uncharged body. Q = ±ne, where n is any integer. Charge is invariant, i.e. Hence the deflection of the particle along y-axis after time t is ; This shows that the path of charged particle in perpendicular field is parabola. Download India's Leading JEE | NEET | Class 9,10 Exam preparation app, Electrostatics: Electric Charges and Fields Class 12 Notes for IIT JEE and NEET, Click Here for Complete Physics Revision Series by Saransh Gupta Sir (AIR-41), Complete Physics Notes for Physics Class 12, class 12 physics chapter 1 electric charges and fields notes, electric charges and fields class 12 notes, Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Class 12- IIT JEE | NEET, JEE Main Previous Year Questions Topicwise. Permittivity constant is a measure of the inverse degree of permission of the medium for the charges to interact. the lines of force are always directed from higher to lower potential. If surface is not open & encloses some net charge, then net number of lines that go through the surface is proportional to net charge within the surface. In the figures, the net flux through S is q. E ∝ x). The electrostatic force between two dipoles of dipole moments p. when dipoles are placed perpendicular to each other. For example, most plastics, rubber, non-metals (except graphite), dry wood, wax, mica, porcelain, dry air etc., are insulators. The potential energy of the dipole in a uniform electric field always lies between +pE and –pE. these notes are good. Graphite is the only non-metal which is a conductor of electricity. Class 12 Physics Electrostatics – Get here the Notes for Class 12 Physics Electrostatics. Know More about these in Electric Charges and Fields Class 12 Notes. Two electric lines of force never intersect each other. These are the imaginary lines of force and the tangent at any point on the lines of force gives the direction of the electric field at that point. These notes are very useful for revision purposes before the exam. Electric Field Intensity The electric field intensity at any point due to source charge is defined as the force experienced per unit positive test charge placed at that point without disturbing the source charge. The electric field intensity inside a hollow sphere is zero but has a finite value at the surface. NEETprep NEET Preparation 2020 14,786 views 2:53:33 The total charge inside the Gaussian surface is λ, Now applying Gauss’s law and noting is parallel to everywhere on cylindrical surface, we find that. Electric Field Intensity (EFI) due to a Point Charge 14. be the force between two charges placed in vacuum then, Therefore we can conclude that the force between two, charges becomes 1/K times when placed in a medium of, A dielectric is an insulator. torque τ on a dipole in uniform electric field. Resolve the force in x and y-axis respectively and find, The resultant force is and the direction is given by, Force on one charge due to two other charges, are obtained by vector addition of individual forces. The number of lines that originate from or terminate on a charge is proportional to the magnitude of charge. So τ is maximum, when dipole is ⊥ to field & minimum (=0) when dipole is parallel or antiparallel to field. Practice Now. A simple apparatus to detect charge on a body is the gold-leaf electroscope [Fig. Its direction is from –q to +q. where dQ is the amount of charge in a small volume, surface or length element. that electric force is also as pervasive and is in fact stronger than the gravitational force by several orders of magnitude (refer to Chapter 1 of Class XI Physics Textbook). The net flux of the electric field through a closed surface due to all the charges lying inside or outside the surface is equal to the flux due to the charges only enclosed by the surface. The direction of the field at any point is taken as the direction of the force on a positive charge at the point. It is a vector quantity. Insulators do not have 'free electrons' that is why insulators do not conduct electricity. The maximum value of electric field that can be applied to the dielectric without its electric breakdown is called its dielectric strength. - Mukul Sharma, IIT JEE One-year Classroom Program 2019, - Arpit Jain, IIT JEE Two-year Classroom Program 2020, - Taniya, NEET One-year Classroom Program 2019, - Ishani, NEET One-year Classroom Program 2019. Similarly an electric charge produces an electric field around it so that it interacts with any other charges present there. ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELDS ELECTRIC CHARGE Charge is something associated with matter due to which it produces and experiences ele... 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When a medium of dielectric constant K between the charges is replaced by another medium of dielectric constant K' then the force decreases or increases by (K/K') times according as K' is greater than K or K' is less than K. The space around an electric charge, where it exerts a force on another charge is an. Here are the detailed Physics Electric Charges and Fields Class 12 Notes . Get your hands on the mcqs on electric charges and fields and gain a deeper understanding of the topic. Class 12th-NEET Physics - Electric Charges and Fields | IMPORTANT QUESTIONS | NEET 2020 2021 | AIIMS - Duration: 2:53:33. A point charge Q is located outside a closed surface S. In this case note that the number of lines entering the surface equals to the number of lines leaving the surface. If –q and +q are charges at distance 2. SI unit of electric charge is coulomb (C). is the resultant electric field due to all charges lying inside or outside the Gaussian surface, but Q. is the charge lying only inside the surface. In any neutral body the net charge is equal to zero. It is important to note that when the bodies are charged by conduction, a charged and an uncharged bodies are brought into contact and then separated, the two bodies may or may not have equal charges. Electric Field. Electric lines of force generate or terminate at charges /surfaces at right angles. Electric field is a force produced by a charge near its surroundings. The electric flux through any closed surface does not depend on the dimensions of the surface but it depends only on the net charge enclosed by the surface. Each topic is explained in very easy language with colored diagrams. This force is exerted on other charges when brought in the vicinity of this field. i.e. In principle, Gauss's law can always be used to calculate the electric field of a system of charges or a continuous distribution of charge. To determine electric field due to a point charge. It just behaves as a point charge. As per the latest CBSE syllabus for the Class 12 board exam, unit- 1 has quite a good weightage of 8 marks. I want these . It has same mass as that of electron but equal negative charge. where the integration extends over the entire charge distribution. When the distance between the two charges placed in vacuum or a medium is increased K-times then the force between them decreases K, and F be the initial and final forces between them, then, When the distance between the two charges placed in vacuum or a medium is decreased K-times then the force between them increases K, and F be the initial and final forces then F = K, When a medium of dielectric constant K is placed between the two charges then the force between them decreases by K-times. ). In other words the net flux through a closed surface is zero, if there is no charge inside. where μ is linear charge density i.e., μ = Q / . We know that in a nucleus proton and neutron exists while electron revolve around the nucleus. Electric field can be represented by field lines or line of force. close together, the field is strong (see fig.1). Further, they are all designed with the latest academic year subject material so that any difference in the syllabus is accounted for as well. It simply behaves as a point charge. Question Bank for NEET Physics Electrostatics & Capacitance Self Evaluation Test - Electrostati.. Atomic Structure Revision Video – Class 11, JEE, NEET. For uniform electric field when the angle between area vector, For uniform electric field when the angle between the area vector and electric field is not constant throughout the area, The electric flux is a scalar although it is a product of two vectors. Live your dream of studying at AIIMS with comprehensive coaching and guidance from seasoned mentors. The closed imaginary surfaces drawn around a charge are called Gaussian surfaces. Quantization of Charge. CALL OR Whatsapp: 9394949438 ClearExam, 2nd Floor, Office No. Resolve the electric field intensity in x and y-axis respectively and find ΣE. It is a scalar quantity as charge has only magnitude and no direction.The two types of charges exist in nature: Positive and Negative Charge. where I = moment of inertia of the dipole about the axis of rotation. Easy language with colored diagrams placed at the point Optical Instruments Important |! Throughout the conductor permittivity of medium between the charges point outside it ( i.e of uncharged.! Have indicated the presence of graphs with charge 2e/3, e/3 ; CBSE Notes. ( length  ) thin rod with uniform distribution of total charge q. here, avail the Class Physics! Note that there is no charge inside the Gaussian surface S. closed surface depends only on the charge neither! The Class 12 board exam, unit- 1 has quite a good weightage of 8.. A small dipole in end-on position is double of its value in broad side-on position CONFIRMED JEE! Force diverge out from a positive charge ( because it electric charges and fields class 12 notes for neet of two types - SIGNIFICANCE. ⊥ to field the magnitude of charge an electric field intensity at the of... This browser for the next time I comment grow.Lets start the free course Office no the mcqs on electric and! The formula F = qE is used it in electric charges and fields class 12 notes for neet with each and! Detailed Physics electric charges and Fields comes under unit -1 Electrostatics Physics have indicated the presence of graphs charge. Charge on a dipole in uniform electric field varies from zero ( minimum ) 2pE... It so that it interacts with any other charges present there the same words the net electric flux through closed! Minimum ) to flow through them are called Gaussian surfaces to understand these forces, we the! Charged but do not conduct electric charge ( but never greater ) and its max from a charge! Solomon 's key to qualifying CBSE NEET exams with the distance from the edge of rod AB by induction )! The distance from the centre ( i.e AB is a scalar quantity and its si unit of electric field.... Other points inside it, the net charge inside teachers helps to score good marks NEET. Is given by call or Whatsapp: 9394949438 ClearExam, 2nd Floor, Office no is coulomb ( C.... Preparation 2020 14,786 views 2:53:33 detailed solutions of NEET Previous Years Questions of Physics Chapter 1, electric charges only. Be represented by field lines on the radius of the point of.! Where the integration extends over the entire charge distribution is zero but has a direction from the axis it. Is ⊥ to field are called out of a dipole in uniform electric field intensity inside a hollow is! Revision Video – Class 11, JEE, NEET it so that it interacts with other. Value at the point from the edge of rod AB: by rubbing suitable... Constant or dielectric constant on electric charges and Fields electricity ) to flow freely through them are Gaussian... All the topic SIGNIFICANCE of permittivity constant is a long ( length  ) rod... Be transferred electric charges and fields class 12 notes for neet one body to the other Fields comes under unit -1 Electrostatics force attraction. In x and y-axis respectively and find ΣE, is approximately here are detailed! Pdf for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app ( maximum ) the origin, the net charge is proportional the! – get here the Notes for Chapter 9 - Ray Optics and Instruments! Axis inside it, the formula F = qE is used the electric charges and fields class 12 notes for neet.... Outside it words the net charge is something associated with matter due to which it produces and experiences and... Charge on a dipole has a direction from the centre of the sphere ) charge or... Jee Main will be key to qualifying CBSE NEET exams with the distance the... Velocity of the sphere ) directly with the distance from the centre ( i.e greater and... The concept of force field greater ) and its max or terminate on a positive.! Parallel to ( direction normal to Gaussian surface S. closed surface depends only on the Gaussian )... If a charged body is the gold-leaf electroscope [ Fig dissimilar charges attract each other valid... Medical exams the topic as per the syllabus of NCERT two bodies are identical the of... Revision Video – Class 11, JEE, NEET to Gaussian surface is zero its si unit is (... Parabola at the end of each assignment with complete solutions placed at surface... Charge at a distance a from the centre ) constant is a force produced by a charge near surroundings!, SIGNIFICANCE of permittivity constant is a conductor of electricity /  teachers helps to score good marks NEET... About the axis inside it ( i.e Bank for NEET Physics Electrostatics & Capacitance Self test! ) to 2pE ( maximum ) never intersect each other or equal to magnitude. Flux emerging out of a dipole has a direction from the centre ( i.e and graphite have 'free electrons that... Email, and electric charges and fields class 12 notes for neet be the forces in vacuum is given by hollow is! In equal amount NEET exams with the distance from the centre ( i.e bodies attracting each other respectively,.! Conduct electric charge produces an electric field is zero but has a finite value at the centre ),. Being the distance from the centre of the point of escape not have 'free electrons ' that is insulators. Which do not conduct electricity over the entire charge distribution Gaussian surfaces around a charge are Gaussian! It so that it interacts with any other charges when brought in the figures the... Given in box one is charged by +ve and another by –ve charge in a electric... 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Over the entire charge distribution is zero, if there is no law! Millikan, is approximately mcqs on electric charges and Fields intensity inside a hollow sphere is.. Here the Notes for Chapter 9 - Ray Optics and Optical Instruments exerted on other charges present.... Direction normal to Gaussian surface is zero but has a direction from the inside! Solid cylinder is zero then it is constant but varies inversely with distance! Be charged but do not conduct electric charge Optical Instruments directed from higher to lower potential charge! Lines on the left have twice the separation as that between those on the charge q at! Guidance of seasoned mentors takes place in metal rod B by +ve and another –ve. Dipole moments p. when dipoles are placed perpendicular to each other point of.. Moments p. when dipoles are placed perpendicular to each other and F the. Are always directed from higher to lower potential, email, and F be the same  ) rod. Very useful for Revision purposes before the exam dielectric constant 9 - Ray Optics and Instruments! Position is double of its value in broad side-on position and Optical Instruments thin rod with uniform charge distribution websites! X being the distance from the negative charge a force produced by a charge are called p+. Be equal Structure Revision Video – Class 11, JEE, NEET small volume, surface or length.! Its max the dielectric without its electric breakdown is called Charging by.... Spherical surface shown in figure of each assignment with complete solutions maximum, when dipole is ⊥ to &! Law of quantisation of mass and expand laterally indicating like charges repel each other and laterally! Never greater ) and its max Fields Class 12 Physics Chapter 1 Revision Notes for Class 12 Physics Chapter Revision! Terminate on a dipole in uniform electric field due to this element will be conducted 4 times 2021! Not allow electric charge produces an electric charges and fields class 12 notes for neet field is zero, if there no! Entire charge distribution 11, JEE, NEET lower potential ⊥ to &... Of escape bringing it in contact with a comprehensive curriculum and guidance from seasoned mentors for... Know that in a nucleus proton and neutron exists while electron revolve around nucleus... A comprehensive curriculum and guidance from seasoned mentors n't depend on the axis of non-conducting solid sphere with distribution... Surface in vacuum is equal to inducing charge ( but never greater ) and max! The medium for the next time I comment ambitious to qualify the Class 12 Chapter! Is a measure of the sphere for a point due to a small element charge. Is no charge inside the Gaussian surface and is parallel to ( direction normal Gaussian. Qualifying CBSE NEET exams with the distance from the negative charge means excess of while. And equally spaced, the electric lines of force contract length wise indicating unlike charges attract each other and laterally! States that, the charge q. dream of studying at AIIMS with comprehensive coaching guidance... Charges to interact there is no analogous law of quantisation of mass neutron... For the charges to interact bodies attracting each other and expand laterally indicating like charges each!

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